대뇌피질은 대뇌의 안쪽부분과 비교해 어두운 색을 띠고 있어 회백질(gray matter)이라고 부르고 반대로 안쪽은 백질(white matter)이라 한다. 회백질은 신경세포체(cell body)와 모세혈관으로 이루어져 있고, 백질은 신경섬유(axon)에 둘러싸인 미엘린(myeline sheath) 때문에 백색으로 보인다. 대뇌피질은 계통발생학상 신피질(새겉질, neocortex)과 이종피질(부등겉질, allocortex)로 나누기도 하는데 사람의 대뇌피질의 90%가 신피질이고 10%만이 이종피질이다. 신피질은 여섯 개의 층으로 분화된다.
대뇌는 한정된 공간에 안에 있기 때문에 복잡하게 주름져 표면적이 넓고, 표면쪽으로 융기된 부위를 이랑(gyrus)라고 하며, 그사이의 움푹들어간 부위를 고랑(sulcus)이라고 한다. 전체 대뇌피질의 약 2/3는 대뇌고랑을 이루면 안쪽으로 들어가 있어 표면에서 관찰되지 않는다. 대뇌피질은 이랑과 고랑의 모양에 따라 전두엽(이마엽, frontal lobe), 두정엽(마루엽, parietal lobe), 측두엽(관자엽, temporal lobe), 후두엽(뒤통수엽, occipital lobe)으로 나뉜다.
フェルディナン・ド・ソシュール（Ferdinand de Saussure、1857年11月26日 - 1913年2月22日）は、スイスの言語学者、言語哲学者。「近代言語学の父」といわれている（ここでの「近代」とは、構造主義のこと、特に「ヨーロッパにおける構造主義言語学」を指している。それとは全く異なる「アメリカ構造主義言語学」（構造主義文法を参照）もあるので注意。また、現代の言語学の直接の起こりは第二次大戦後であり、この「近代言語学」との直接の連続性は低い）。
The Tokugawa shogunate, also known as the Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府?) and the Edo bakufu (江戸幕府?), was the last feudal Japanese military government which existed between 1603 and 1867. The heads of government were the shoguns, and each was a member of the Tokugawa clan. The Tokugawa shogunate ruled from Edo Castle and the years of the shogunate became known as the Edo period. This time is also called the Tokugawa period or pre-modern (Kinsei (近世?)).
Following the Sengoku Period of "warring states", the central government had been largely reestablished by Oda Nobunaga during the Azuchi-Momoyama period. After the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600, central authority fell to Tokugawa Ieyasu.
Society in the Tokugawa period, unlike the shogunates before it, was supposedly based on the strict class hierarchy originally established by Toyotomi Hideyoshi. The daimyo, or lords, were at the top, followed by the warrior-caste of samurai, with the farmers, artisans, and traders ranking below. In some parts of the country, particularly smaller regions, daimyo and samurai were more or less identical, since daimyo might be trained as samurai, and samurai might act as local rulers. Otherwise, the largely inflexible nature of this social stratification system unleashed disruptive forces over time. Taxes on the peasantry were set at fixed amounts which did not account for inflation or other changes in monetary value. As a result, the tax revenues collected by the samurai landowners were worth less and less over time. This often led to numerous confrontations between noble but impoverished samurai and well-to-do peasants, ranging from simple local disturbances to much bigger rebellions. None, however, proved compelling enough to seriously challenge the established order until the arrival of foreign powers.
In the mid-19th century, an alliance of several of the more powerful daimyo, along with the titular Emperor, finally succeeded in the overthrow of the shogunate after the Boshin War, culminating in the Meiji Restoration. The Tokugawa Shogunate came to an official end in 1868 with the resignation of the 15th Tokugawa Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu, leading to the "restoration" (王政復古, Ōsei fukko) of imperial rule. Notwithstanding its eventual overthrow in favor of the more "modernized", less feudal form of governance of the Meiji Restoration, the Tokugawa shogunate oversaw the longest period of peace and stability in Japan's history, lasting well over 250 years.
The bakuhan taisei (幕藩体制) was the feudal political system in the Edo period of Japan. Baku, or "tent," is an abbreviation of bakufu, meaning "military government" — that is, the shogunate. The han were the domains headed by daimyo.
Vassals held inherited lands and provided military service and homage to their lords. The Bakuhan Taisei split feudal power between the shogunate in Edo and provincial domains throughout Japan. Provinces had a degree of sovereignty and were allowed an independent administration of the Han in exchange for loyalty to the Shogun, who was responsible for foreign relations and national security. The shogun and lords were all daimyo: feudal lords with their own bureaucracies, policies, and territories. The Shogun also administered the most powerful han, the hereditary fief of the House of Tokugawa. Each level of government administered its own system of taxation.
something that is created with imagination and skill and that is beautiful or that expresses important ideas or feelings
works created by artists, paintings, sculptures, etc., that are created to be beautiful or to express important ideas or feelings
the methods and skills used for painting, sculpting, drawing, etc.
Cave paintings (also known as "parietal art") are painted drawings on cave walls or ceilings, mainly of prehistoric origin, to some 40,000 years ago (around 38,000 BCE) in both Asia and Europe. The exact purpose of the Paleolithic cave paintings is not known. Evidence suggests that they were not merely decorations of living areas since the caves in which they have been found do not have signs of ongoing habitation. They are also often located in areas of caves that are not easily accessible. Some theories hold that cave paintings may have been a way of communicating with others, while other theories ascribe a religious or ceremonial purpose to them. The paintings are remarkably similar around the world, with animals being common subjects that give the most impressive images. Humans mainly appear as images of hands, mostly hand stencils made by blowing pigment on a hand held to the wall.
注目すべきはこの一文です。 The paintings are remarkably similar around the world フロイトでいうところの無意識みたいなものでしょうか。
The earliest known cave paintings/drawings of animals are at least 35,000 years old, at Maros on the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia, according to datings announced in 2014. Previously it was believed that the earliest paintings were in Europe. The earliest figurative paintings in Europe date back to the Aurignacian period, approximately 30,000 to 32,000 years ago, and are found in the Chauvet Cave in France, and in the Coliboaia Cave in Romania. The earliest non-figurative rock art dates back to approximately 40,000 years ago, the date given both to a disk in the El Castillo cave in Cantabria, Spain and a hand stencil in Sulawesi. There are similar later paintings in Africa, Australia and South America, continuing until recent times in some places, though there is a worldwide tendency for open air rock art to succeed paintings deep in caves.
there is a worldwide tendency for open air rock art この一文も興味深いです。 ワールドワイドな出来事だったのでしょう。 当時、洞窟は人々を外界から守るためのシェルターでしたから。
2001年9月11日のアメリカ同時多発テロ事件前から、ワールドトレードセンターのツインタワーについて考察し、ディズニーランドや湾岸戦争からはサダム・フセインのイラクとイスラム教、グローバリゼーションとテロリズムを題材にアメリカ自身が持つ問題を積極的に論じた。1992年の『The Illusion of the End』（日本語訳未公刊）では当時のフランシス・フクヤマの歴史の終わりに代表される自由主義への楽観的な見方について批判をしている。
Further information: Osama bin Laden, Death of Osama bin Laden and Videos of Osama bin Laden
1997 picture of Osama bin Laden Bin Laden, who orchestrated the attacks, initially denied but later admitted involvement. Al Jazeera broadcast a statement by bin Laden on September 16, 2001, stating, "I stress that I have not carried out this act, which appears to have been carried out by individuals with their own motivation." In November 2001, U.S. forces recovered a videotape from a destroyed house in Jalalabad, Afghanistan. In the video, bin Laden is seen talking to Khaled al-Harbi and admits foreknowledge of the attacks. On December 27, 2001, a second bin Laden video was released. In the video, he said, "It has become clear that the West in general and America in particular have an unspeakable hatred for Islam. ... It is the hatred of crusaders. Terrorism against America deserves to be praised because it was a response to injustice, aimed at forcing America to stop its support for Israel, which kills our people. ... We say that the end of the United States is imminent, whether Bin Laden or his followers are alive or dead, for the awakening of the Muslim umma (nation) has occurred", but he stopped short of admitting responsibility for the attacks.The transcript refers several times to the United States specifically targeting Muslims.
The September 11 attacks (also referred to as 9/11)[nb 1] were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group Al-Qaeda on the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. The attacks consisted of suicide attacks used to target symbolic U.S. landmarks.
Four passenger airliners operated by two major U.S. passenger air carriers (United Airlines and American Airlines)—all of which departed from airports on the U.S. East Coast bound for California—were hijacked by 19 al-Qaeda terrorists. Two of the planes, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175, were crashed into the North and South towers, respectively, of the World Trade Center complex in New York City. Within an hour and 42 minutes, both 110-story towers collapsed, with debris and the resulting fires causing partial or complete collapse of all other buildings in the World Trade Center complex, including the 47-story 7 World Trade Center tower, as well as significant damage to ten other large surrounding structures. A third plane, American Airlines Flight 77, was crashed into the Pentagon (the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense) in Arlington County, Virginia, leading to a partial collapse in the Pentagon's western side. The fourth plane, United Airlines Flight 93, initially was steered toward Washington, D.C., but crashed into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, after its passengers tried to overcome the hijackers. In total, the attacks claimed the lives of 2,996 people (including the 19 hijackers) and caused at least $10 billion in property and infrastructure damage and $3 trillion in total costs. It was the deadliest incident for firefighters and law enforcement officers in the history of the United States, with 343 and 72 killed respectively.
9·11 테러(September 11 attacks)는 2001년 9월 11일에 미국에서 벌어진 항공기 납치 동시다발 자살 테러로 뉴욕의 110층짜리 세계무역센터(WTC) 쌍둥이 빌딩이 무너지고, 버지니아 주 알링턴 군의 미국 국방부 펜타곤이 공격을 받은 대참사이다. 이는 2002년 조지 W. 부시가 발의한 국토안보법에 의거, 미국 국토안보부 개설의 계기가 되기도 하였다.
Tokugawa Ieyasu (徳川 家康, January 31, 1543 – June 1, 1616) was the founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, which virtually ruled Japan from the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 until the Meiji Restoration in 1868. Ieyasu seized power in 1600, received appointment as shogun in 1603, abdicated from office in 1605, but remained in power until his death in 1616. His given name is sometimes spelled Iyeyasu, according to the historical pronunciation of he. Ieyasu was posthumously enshrined at Nikkō Tōshō-gū with the name Tōshō Daigongen (東照大権現).
The expression or application of human creative skill and imagination, typically in a visual form such as painting or sculpture, producing works to be appreciated primarily for their beauty or emotional power: ‘the art of the Renaissance’
The artworks are in a rural area on the Indonesian Island of Sulawesi.
Until now, paintings this old had been confirmed in caves only in Western Europe.
Researchers tell the journal Nature that the Indonesian discovery transforms ideas about how humans first developed the ability to produce art.
Australian and Indonesian scientists have dated layers of stalactite-like growths that have formed over coloured outlines of human hands.
Early artists made them by carefully blowing paint around hands that were pressed tightly against the cave walls and ceilings. The oldest is at least 40,000 years old.
There are also human figures, and pictures of wild hoofed animals that are found only on the island. Dr Maxime Aubert, of Griffith University in Queensland, Australia, who dated the paintings found in Maros in Southern Sulawesi, explained that one of them (shown immediately below) was probably the earliest of its type.