Extent and Health Consequences of Chronic Sleep Loss and Sleep Disorders
CHAPTER SUMMARY It is estimated that 50 to 70 million Americans chronically suffer from a disorder of sleep and wakefulness, hindering daily functioning and adversely affecting health and longevity. There around 90 distinct sleep disorders; most are marked by one of these symptoms: excessive daytime sleepiness, difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep, and abnormal events occurring during sleep. The cumulative long-term effects of sleep loss and sleep disorders have been associated with a wide range of deleterious health consequences including an increased risk of hypertension, diabetes, obesity, depression, heart attack, and stroke. After decades of research, the case can be confidently made that sleep loss and sleep disorders have profound and widespread effects on human health. This chapter focuses on manifestations and prevalence, etiology and risk factors, and comorbidities of the most common sleep conditions, including sleep loss, sleep-disordered breathing, insomnia, narcolepsy, restless legs syndrome, parasomnias, sleep-related psychiatric disorders, sleep-related neurological disorders, sleep-related medical disorders, and circadian rhythm sleep disorders.
The Sharia-based personal status law is applied to Muslims and even non-Muslims. Non-Muslims can be liable to Sharia rulings on marriage, divorce and child custody. However, the burden is on the Non Muslim party to request that foreign family laws are applied on a particular case.
Sharia law in the United Arab Emirates
Many of the laws in the UAE are based on Sharia law and you should keep that in mind at all times.
For starters, like many Middle Eastern countries, the UAE has the death penalty for serious crimes such as murder, rape, and treason. Drug trafficking also attracts the death penalty; refer to the section on drugs for more information.
Common law relationships, homosexuality, cross-dressing, adultery, and all of these are subject to severe punishment, including imprisonment and deportation, and for Muslim travellers, a high probability of corporal punishment as well.
An estimated 8 million metrics tons of plastic trash ends up in our oceans every year. The ocean currents have formed five gigantic, slow moving whirlpools where the plastic collects, called gyres. Most of the plastic debris sinks or remains in the gyres, however a significant percentage of it washes onto our coastlines daily.
After sunlight photodegrades the plastic into small pieces, aquatic life and seabirds mistake these fragments for food and ingest it. While it's difficult to know exact figures, a 2012 report from WSPA indicates that between 57,000 and 135,000 whales are entangled by plastic marine debris every year in addition to the inestimable – but likely millions – of birds, turtles, fish and other species affected by plastic marine debris.
New studies show that ingested plastic damages the internal organs of fish. This raises the question about the safety of our seafood.
요즘 전 세계적으로 코로나19가 가장 이슈다. 코로나19는 우리 생활 뿐 아니라 환경에도 악영향을 끼치고 있다. 기침이나 재채기를 할 때 생긴 침방울과 접촉으로 전파되는 바이러스 특성상 마스크와 일회용 장갑의 사용이 급증하고 있으며, 전염을 막기 위해 시행된 사회적 거리두기의 영향으로 배달이 늘어나며 일회용품 사용량 또한 증가했다.